Fats (or lipids) are the primary structural components of cellular membranes and are also sources of cellular energy . Dietary fats fall into 4 categories: monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, saturated fats, and trans fats. The fat content of food is generally an admixture of these different types . Unsaturated fats are found in a variety of foods, including fish, many plant-derived oils, nuts, and seeds, whereas animal products (and some plant-derived oils) contribute a larger proportion of saturated fats [35,36]. Trans fats found in foods are predominantly the result of processing vegetable oils but are also present in small quantities in animal products (i.e., ruminant trans fats from cows, sheep, and goats) [35,36]. Among the types of dietary fats, unsaturated fats are associated with reduced cardiovascular and mortality risks, whereas trans fats and, to a lesser degree, saturated fats are associated with negative impacts on health, including increased mortality risk [36,37]. Two families of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 and omega-6, are described as essential fatty acids, because they are required for normal growth and reproduction but are not produced by the body and, therefore, must be obtained from dietary sources . Omega-3 fatty acids, in particular, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been widely studied for their potential health benefits, with evidence suggesting positive effects including cardioprotection, preventing cognitive decline, reducing inflammation, sustaining muscle mass, and improving systemic insulin resistance [38,39,40]. Seafood, especially oily fish, provides EPA and DHA, and supplements are widely available for those not meeting recommended intakes with diet alone [41,42]. Nuts and some seeds and plant oils provide alpha-linolenic acid, the major plant omega-3 fatty acid .
Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential in preventing foodborne illness. You can't see, smell, or taste harmful bacteria that may cause illness. In every step of food preparation, follow the four guidelines to keep food safe:
A healthy diet may contain fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and may include little to no processed food or sweetened beverages. The requirements for a healthy diet can be met from a variety of plant-based and animal-based foods, although additional sources of vitamin B12 are needed for those following a vegan diet. Various nutrition guides are published by medical and governmental institutions to educate individuals on what they should be eating to be healthy. Nutrition facts labels are also mandatory in some countries to allow consumers to choose between foods based on the components relevant to health. 59ce067264